suf - Identify sufficient conditions

**suf** [*OPTIONS*]

Test for sufficient conditions.

- -o, --outcome=
*COLUMN* Outcome column (default is last column)

- -i, --include=
*COLUMNS* Include only these causal conditions (default is all)

- -I, --exclude=
*COLUMNS* Don't include these as causal conditions

For these three options, *COLUMNS* may be specified by column position or name. Separate multiple *COLUMNS* with commas.

- -s, --simplify=
*PARAMETER* How aggressively should the routine reduce the truth table? Accepted parameters are:

`0 - Reduce truth table to primitive expressions 1 - Reduce truth table to prime implicants (default) 2 - Reduce prime implicants (equivalent to fs/QCA's "complex solution") 3 - Reduce prime implicants using remainders as simplifying assumptions (equivalent to fs/QCA's "parsimonious solution")`

- -f, --freq=
*VALUE* Frequency threshold (default is 1)

- -c, --consist=
*VALUE* Consistency threshold (default is 0.9)

- -p, --prop=
*VALUE* Proportion threshold (default is 1.0)

- -e, --readtt=
*FILE* Read in truth table from external file; don't convert dataset to truth table

- -y, --input=
*FILE* If absent, or when

*FILE*is -, read standard input

*VALUE* is a number ranging between 0.0 and 1.0. For -e, *FILE* is a plain text representation of a truth table, such as is produced by **suf** or **gtt**. For -y, *FILE* is a dataset.

- -d, --dataset
Print dataset

- -D, --Dataset
Print dataset and exit

- -t, --truthtable
Print truth table

- -T, --Truthtable
Print truth table and exit

- -h, --help
Display help and exit

- -v, --version
Output version information and exit

Mandatory arguments to long options are also mandatory for short options.

**suf** uses the same "truth table algorithm" as **fs/QCA** and which is described in **Redesigning Social Inquiry** (Ragin 2008). However, there are a handful of important differences between **suf** and **fs/QCA**:

**suf**supports "Impossible" conditions, combinations of causal conditions that cannot occur. If a truth table row is marked as "Impossible," that row will not be included as a remainder when constructing the parsimonious solution.**suf**also supports fuzzy-set contradictions, as described in "Contradictions in fsQCA" (Rubinson 2011). A contradiction is a truth table row in which the ratio of consistent:inconsistent observations falls below a given threshold (specified by --prop).**suf**does not provide an equivalent to**fs/QCA**'s "intermediate" solution. As described in "Between Complexity and Parsimony" (Ragin and Sonnett 2004), it is often the case that a range of intermediate solutions can be constructed for a given analysis. Rubinson's position is that it would therefore be misleading for**suf**to produce a single intermediate solution.**suf**eliminates**fs/QCA**'s pop-up prime implicant chart. In certain instances (known as "codominance" in Quine-McCluskey parlance), the QCA truth table reduction algorithm can produce more than one solution covering a given observation (or set of observations). When encountering such a situation,**fs/QCA**pops up a prime implicant chart for the user to resolve. This tends to confuse even experienced QCA practitioners. Instead,**suf**simply returns all solutions. The codominant solutions are easily identified because they will share the same set of observations and their unique coverage will be 0.0. It is then up to the researcher to determine which solutions to retain. A researcher might choose to retain only one of the codominant solutions, dropping the others as redundant. Alternatively, a researcher might choose to retain multiple solutions and argue that these observations are "overdetermined"--that they possess multiple combinations of causal conditions, any one of which are sufficient to produce the outcome.

bq(1), concov(1), consist(1), gtt(1), nec(1)